Cotton is grown in over 100 countries around the world, many of which are newly industrialising countries. It's estimated that there are 100 million cotton producers in the world, with China, USA, India, Pakistan and Brazil the world’s biggest producing nations. Australia is a relatively minor producer on the world scale but is the world’s second largest exporter.
The major production area in NSW stretches south from the Macintyre River on the Queensland border and covers the Gwydir, Namoi and Macquarie valleys. In NSW cotton is also grown along the Barwon and Darling rivers in the west and the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee rivers in the south.
In Queensland, cotton is grown mostly in the south in the Darling Downs, St George, Dirranbandi and Macintyre Valley regions. The remainder is grown near Emerald, Theodore and Biloela in Central Queensland.